Monday, September 22, 2014

The Prophecies of Daniel - Is the End Near - Session 3 - World Powers in Conflict

The Sistine Chapel; Ceiling Frescos after 
Restoration, the Prophet Daniel.  Found on Pinterest


The Church of Divine Guidance (CDG) Sunday morning adult bible study group is involved in a study of chapters 7-12 of the book of Daniel. In light of all the things that are going on in the Middle East today many Christians and others are wondering if these things are fulfillment of prophecy and a sign that the end is near. It is not my intent to prove or disprove what people are saying about whether these things are the fulfillment of prophecy or not. My goal is to equip you through study so you can make your own determinations.

Daniel 8

Introduction


God gave Daniel the unique opportunity of looking at the future.  Last week Daniel’s vision was primarily about Gentile nations their character, relations, succession, and destiny.  But in Daniel 8 that future gets very personal.  In Daniel 8-12, the emphasis is on the destiny of Israel.

  1. If God offered to show you glimpses of our nation's future over the next two hundred years, would you want to see them? Explain.


I know that God is in control and that my seeing them won’t change anything, however it may help me to prepare for bad things and to not get too excited and overdo it if good things were going to happen especially if I knew that bad things were coming.  If I had known when I was younger that certain things were going to happen I probably would have done some things differently. So after saying all  that I guess I would want to see them.
  1. When and where did Daniel’s vision occur? (8:1-2)


This dream was in Belshazzar’s third year, two years after the vision in Chapter 7 which we discussed last week.

  1. What was the description of the ram in Daniel’s dream? (8:3-4)

The ram had two horns meaning there were two allied kingdoms or empires Media and Persia. The ram was very powerful and conquered in all directions and nothing was able to defeat it.   The ram by the way represented the Medo-Persian empire which in Nebuchadnezzar's dream was the chest and arms of silver on the statue in chapter 2,  and in Daniel’s dream in chapter 7 was the second beast, the bear,  The ram was the world's first superpower until the next animal of the dream, a goat,  appeared

  1. What did the goat do to the ram? (8:5-7)
    The Ram and the Goat - Unknown Key-way Publishing

The goat defeated, killed and trampled the ram. The goat by the way had only one big horn.  The goat was Greece, led by Alexander the Great,  which in Nebuchadnezzar's dream was the belly and the thighs of bronze of the statue, and the leopard in Daniel’s earlier dream.  A little about their conquest of the Medo-Persian empire and beyond from the Wycliffe Bible Commentary:

The clean sweep of Alexander's armies is predicted in the latter part of Dan 8:7. His small swift army, with its devastating phalanx formation, swept through Asia Minor, Syria, Egypt, and finally Mesopotamia (334-331 b.c.). After that his armies advanced eastward to India, then turned back again toward the west.

  1. What happened to the goat at the height of his power? (8:8)

At the height of his power the big horn was broken off and four other horns appeared.  That kingdom was led by Alexander the Great, the big horn, who died young.



More from the Wycliffe Commentary

Alexander died in the thirty-third year of his age, of fever and alcohol, at Babylon. In the subsequent twenty years, his winnings were divided into four parts among four of his military successors. Two of the resultant divisions—Egypt under the Ptolemies (the last of whom was the famous Cleopatra) and Syria under the Seleucids, the historic kings of the South and the North, respectively—are of importance as neighbors of the Jews.

We will talk more about them in chapter 11.

The Empire split into four kingdoms, which would retain their sovereignty in order from least to longest: the Seleucids in Asia Minor and the Middle East, the Antigonids in Macedon (an area partly encompassing Greece), the Attalids in Pergamum (Asia Minor) and the Ptolemys in Egypt.


REGION
GENERAL
I. Macedonia
(Macedonia ruled Greece for 200 years.)
Antigonus
II. Asia
(Called Asia Minor today. It is modern day Turkey.)
Lysimachus
(generally ruled western portion of Asia Minor in addition to Thrace in Europe.)
III. Syria
Seleucus
(in addition to portions of Asia.)
IV. Egypt
Ptolemy
(The infamous Cleopatra was the last Ptolemy to rule Egypt.)

 All four kingdoms were eventually incorporated into the Roman Republic.

  1. How did the little horn grow in importance? (8:9-12)

The little horn, or ruler, was focused on the Jews so it was very important to Daniel and as we will learn later would become very violent and cruel to them.

Daniel 8:9 (NKJV)9  And out of one of them came a little horn which grew exceedingly great toward the south, toward the east, and toward the Glorious Land.  

That’s why this horn was important in Daniel’s dream.  He attacked the people and even made himself equal to the God of the Jews and he banned their religious practices including those of sacrifice.
  1. What did the angel—the "holy one"—reveal? (8:13-14)

There were actually two angels the one ask the question as to how long the atrocities against God's people would last and the second angel give the time frame.

From the EasyEnglish Commentary by by Robert Bryce

Then another little *horn grew. It was powerful in the south and the east. It was also powerful in the where the Jews lived. This is the country that God promised to his people, the *Jews. The little *horn became very proud. It even attacked the stars in the sky. This might mean *angels. It thought that it was as great as God is. And it ruined his house. It stopped people giving *sacrifices to God. The *horn encouraged people to be wicked. It did not like the truth and it tried to destroy it. God allowed this, but only for a certain time.


These verses predict what happened to the Jews after they returned from exile in the second half of the second century b.c. Led by Antiochus IV, who was called Epiphanes ("Magnificent") by friends, Epimanes ("Madman") by enemies.  He came from the Syrian kingdom the Seleucids, that we mentioned earlier.

A lot of people see a comparison between what happened with him and the Jews, to what is prophesied in Revelations as the actions of the Antichrist toward Christians.  

Regarding the timing as reveled by the "holy one";

According to the Wycliffe Bible Commentary "The 2,300 days is literally, evening-mornings, i.e., evening and morning daily burnt sacrifices, and so refers to only 1, 150 days. It seems to refer to a period in 168-165 b.c. when the Temple was desecrated by pagan sacrifices."  

More background from a Wikipedia posting;

While Antiochus was busy in Egypt, a rumor spread that he had been killed. The deposed High Priest Jason gathered a force of 1,000 soldiers and made a surprise attack on the city of Jerusalem. The High Priest appointed by Antiochus, Menelaus, was forced to flee Jerusalem during a riot. On the King's return from Egypt in 167 BC, enraged by his defeat, he attacked Jerusalem and restored Menelaus, then executed many Jews.[6]

To consolidate his empire and strengthen his hold over the region, Antiochus decided to side with the Hellenized Jews by outlawing Jewish religious rites and traditions kept by observant Jews and by ordering the worship of Zeus as the supreme god (2 Maccabees 6:1–12). This was anathema to the Jews and when they refused, Antiochus sent an army to enforce his decree. Because of the resistance, the city was destroyed, many were slaughtered, and a military Greek citadel called the Acra was established.

Now the interpretation

  1. Why do you think God chose to communicate future events to Daniel in this way? Why not simply tell him the historical facts?

Use of the symbolism could make Daniel more aware and be more shocking so that he would take careful notice.  The animals were so unusual they would demand some sort of explanation.  Perhaps it illustrate how quickly and violently these times would be that’s why the violence of the attack on the ram, who appeared invincible  by the goat who was fast moving and violent.  Then the same kind of animal only stronger came and finished off the ram.   The nature of the ram and goat would reflect the leaders and the kingdoms.  The goat moved very quickly and was very powerful  and from that kingdom would come somebody very very powerful and evil.  

  1. What was Gabriel sent to do? (8:16)

To explain the Daniel what he had just seen in his dream (Gabriel means hero of God)

10. How did Daniel respond to the heavenly messenger? (8:17)

He passed out.     His fear was not so much terror, I don’t think but reverence realizing that he (Daniel was just a man and Gabriel was from God in heaven.  

Similar examples of reactions when seeing visions of or from heaven when you realize your own sinfulness in comparison:

Isaiah 6:5 (NKJV)5  So I said: "Woe is me, for I am undone! Because I am a man of unclean lips, And I dwell in the midst of a people of unclean lips; For my eyes have seen the King, The LORD of hosts."  

Ezekiel 1:28 (NKJV)28  Like the appearance of a rainbow in a cloud on a rainy day, so was the appearance of the brightness all around it. This was the appearance of the likeness of the glory of the LORD. So when I saw it, I fell on my face, and I heard a voice of One speaking.

or Exodus 3:6 (NKJV)6  Moreover He said, "I am the God of your father--the God of Abraham, the God of Isaac, and the God of Jacob." And Moses hid his face, for he was afraid to look upon God.

Revelation 1:17 (NKJV) 17  And when I saw Him, I fell at His feet as dead. But He laid His right hand on me, saying to me, "Do not be afraid; I am the First and the Last.


  1. When would the events of the vision take place? (8:17-19)

Near the end of the time of the persecution of the Jews by Antiochus IV.  We could also say that is perhaps a prophecy of what will happen in the for real end times.   It’s common to find a near literal view combined with a for distant view within the scope of a particular prophecy.

  1. Who was represented in the fight between the two-horned ram and the goat? (8:20-22)

The ram was the Medo-Persian Empire.   One of the horns was larger than the other and it came up last.   That was Persia.  

Within a short time,Daniel became a trusted advisor to the new Medo-Persian Empire. This kingdom of the Medes and the Persians was later ruled by Artaxerxes II, or Ahasuerus, who married Esther. Today, Persia is essentially synonymous with modern Iran, and this was not so different in ancient times. However, Persia as an ancient kingdom, especially when referenced along with Media, encompassed Egypt in the west to parts of India in the east, and included Asia Minor from the eastern border of Greece to Tajikistan.

The goat represented Greece.  


  1. The goat with one large horn is a symbol of the Greek empire and their notable first king, Alexander the Great (Daniel 8:21). From the scene in Daniel 8:5-8, how would you describe the clash of these two empires?

Difficult battle because the sheep was powerful as described in verse 4 so the battle would have been a tough one but when the sheep was defeated he was humiliated because the goat walked all over him.

Gabriel explains that the ram represents Medo-Persia and the goat represents Greece and that there will be four kingdoms from Greece.  

Here is the historic timing.

  • Babylon Empire 605 to 536 BC
  • Medo Persia 536 to 330
  • Greece 330 to 30 BC (This includes the time of Alexander the Great and the the breakup into 4 kingdoms from that.  This is all considered the Grecian Empire)
  • Rome 30 BC which some say still exists but they are trying to include the Roman Catholic Church in that and other nations conquered by Rome.  I disagree with that and I say that the Roman Empire ended 476 AD.  The last Roman Emperor was   Romulus, who was overthrown by the Germanic leader Odoacer, who became the first Barbarian to rule in Rome.
  1. How did Gabriel describe the role of the little horn? (8:23-25)

Remember we said that the little horn may represent Antiochus Epiphanes and his role was to put himself up as equal to God.  He hated God’s people the Jews.  He stopped the sacrifices and desecrated the temple by pagan sacrifices.   

Finally, the Jews were able to drive Antiochus out of Israel and to reclaim the Temple.

From Wikipedia:
Finally, the Jews were able to drive Antiochus out of Israel and to reclaim the Temple.
The Maccabees, also spelled Machabees , were the leaders of a Jewish rebel army that took control of Judea, which at the time had been a province of the Seleucid Empire. They founded the Hasmonean dynasty, which ruled from 164 BCE to 63 BCE. They reasserted the Jewish religion, partly by forced conversion, expanded the boundaries of Judea by conquest and reduced the influence of Hellenism and Hellenistic Judaism.

In the narrative of I Maccabees, after Antiochus issued his decrees forbidding Jewish religious practice, a rural Jewish priest from Modiin,Mattathias the Hasmonean, sparked the revolt against the Seleucid Empire by refusing to worship the Greek gods. Mattathias killed a Hellenistic Jew who stepped forward to offer a sacrifice to an idol in Mattathias' place. He and his five sons fled to the wilderness of Judah. After Mattathias' death about one year later in 166 BCE, his son Judas Maccabee led an army of Jewish dissidents to victory over the Seleucid dynasty in guerrilla warfare, which at first was directed against Hellenizing Jews, of whom there were many. The Maccabees destroyed pagan altars in the villages, circumcised boys and forced Jews into outlawry.[8] The term Maccabees as used to describe the Jewish army is taken from the Hebrew word for "hammer".[9]
The revolt involved many battles, in which the Maccabean forces gained notoriety among the Seleucid army for their use of guerrilla tactics. After the victory, the Maccabees entered Jerusalem in triumph and ritually cleansed the Temple, reestablishing traditional Jewish worship there and installing Jonathan Maccabee as high priest. A large Seleucid army was sent to quash the revolt, but returned to Syria on the death of Antiochus IV. Its commander Lysias, preoccupied with internal Seleucid affairs, agreed to a political compromise that restored religious freedom.
The Jewish festival of Hanukkah celebrates the re-dedication of the Temple following Judah Maccabee's victory over the Seleucids. According to Rabbinic tradition, the victorious Maccabees could only find a small jug of oil that had remained uncontaminated by virtue of a seal, and although it only contained enough oil to sustain the Menorah for one day, it miraculously lasted for eight days, by which time further oil could be procured.[10]

Now Here’s Where Many Believe an another king, or leader is meant for the end of days.

Daniel 8:23-26 (HCSB)23  Near the end of their kingdoms, when the rebels have reached the full measure of their sin, an insolent king, skilled in intrigue, will come to the throne.24  His power will be great, but it will not be his own. He will cause terrible destruction and succeed in whatever he does. He will destroy the powerful along with the holy people.25  He will cause deceit to prosper through his cunning and by his influence, and in his own mind he will make himself great. He will destroy many in a time of peace; he will even stand against the Prince of princes. Yet he will be shattered—not by human hands.26  The vision of the evenings and the mornings that has been told is true. Now you must seal up the vision because it refers to many days ⌊in the future⌋.”

From  EasyEnglish Commentary by by Robert Bryce
This was also a king. He will come from one of those four horns in the break up of the Grecian Empire, Rome some say.  This will be the Antichrist of the end times.   He will come at the end of the world. He too will hate God’s people. Then God will kill him. Then God will give the kingdom to his own people.


  1. If you had been a Jew living under the tyranny of Antiochus, how would it have made you feel to read Daniel's prophetic prediction of the very events you were experiencing?

You would have known that it would be coming to an end and you would have been strengthened in that.

  1. Daniel's predictions were fulfilled precisely and literally. Should we expect biblical predictions about our future to be fulfilled in the same way? Explain.

Absolutely. Every prophecy that has been fulfilled has been fulfilled precisely and literally and proven with historical evidence. There is no reason to believe that those that haven't been fulfilled yet will be otherwise. Here's an example other than the ones in Daniel.

Luke 4:17-21 (NKJV) 17  And He was handed the book of the prophet Isaiah. And when He had opened the book, He found the place where it was written: 18  "The Spirit of the LORD is upon Me, Because He has anointed Me To preach the gospel to the poor; He has sent Me to heal the brokenhearted, To proclaim liberty to the captives And recovery of sight to the blind, To set at liberty those who are oppressed; 19  To proclaim the acceptable year of the LORD." 20  Then He closed the book, and gave it back to the attendant and sat down. And the eyes of all who were in the synagogue were fixed on Him. 21  And He began to say to them, "Today this Scripture is fulfilled in your hearing."


17. What was Daniel told to do? (8:26)

He’s told to seal it up because it is for a future time.  We have seen here today that there are times in history of the fulfilment of it but the last of the vision may also point to a still future time.

18. How was Daniel affected by the interpretation of the vision? (8:27)

Daniel still did not understand the dream. He was sick for many days. Then he went back to work for the king.

Apply It

  1. When you next feel powerless or inadequate, how can you entrust yourself to the Lord?
  2. *In your prayers today, what specific national sins do you want to ask God to correct?


Chapter 9 next week


Sunday, September 14, 2014

The Prophecies of Daniel - Is the End Near? Session 2

The Sistine Chapel; Ceiling Frescos after 
Restoration, the Prophet Daniel.  Found on Pinterest




The Church of Divine Guidance (CDG) Sunday morning adult bible study group is involved in a study of chapters 7-12 of the book of Daniel. In light of all the things that are going on in the Middle East today many Christians and others are wondering if these things are fulfillment of prophecy and a sign that the end is near. It is not my intent to prove or disprove what people are saying about whether these things are the fulfillment of prophecy or not.  My goal is to equip you through study so you can make your own determinations.

Introduction


Last week we started our study of the Prophecies of Daniel.  Our study will cover chapters 7-12 but we will refer back to chapter 2 a lot because the first prophetic dream that Daniel has really corresponds to a dream that Nebuchadnezzar had which Daniel interpreted in chapter 2.  

We learned that The book has two main parts each part made up of six chapters.  Part 1 chapters 1-6 are primarily history.  Part 2 chapters 7- 12 are prophecies.  The book is also divided in another way.  The first seven chapters deal with primarily Gentile nations their character, relations, succession, and destiny.  Chapters 8-12 deal with The Hebrew nation, its relation to Gentile dominion, and its future in the plan of God.  

Here’s something else that I didn’t mention last week about the book and how it is made up of two main parts. Chapters 1-7 were written in Aramaic (the language of the Gentile nations) and 8-12 were written in Hebrew (the language of the exiled nations of Israel and Judah, God’s chosen nation).

Last week we talked about the dream that Daniel had about the 4 beast  (lion, bear, leopard, and a fourth powerful beast with 10 horns), which we learned, later when interpreted by an angel,  represented kingdoms,  coming out of the sea, which we said was the Mediterranean sea.  The beasts of the dream or visions corresponded to parts of the great statue in Nebuchadnezzar's dream in chapter two.

Let’s go back and quickly read Daniel 7:4-7 (HCSB) 4  “The first was like a lion but had eagle’s wings. I continued watching until its wings were torn off. It was lifted up from the ground, set on its feet like a man, and given a human mind.5  “Suddenly, another beast appeared, a second one, that looked like a bear. It was raised up on one side, with three ribs in its mouth between its teeth. It was told, ‘Get up! Gorge yourself on flesh.’6  “While I was watching, another beast appeared. It was like a leopard with four wings of a bird on its back. It had four heads and was given authority to rule.7  “While I was watching in the night visions, a fourth beast appeared, frightening and dreadful, and incredibly strong, with large iron teeth. It devoured and crushed, and it trampled with its feet whatever was left. It was different from all the beasts before it, and it had 10 horns.

Now Daniel 2:31-34 (HCSB)31  “My king, as you were watching, a colossal statue appeared. That statue, tall and dazzling, was standing in front of you, and its appearance was terrifying.32  The head of the statue was pure gold, its chest and arms were silver, its stomach and thighs were bronze,33  its legs were iron, and its feet were partly iron and partly fired clay.34  As you were watching, a stone broke off without a hand touching it, struck the statue on its feet of iron and fired clay, and crushed them.  

The lion is the same as the head of gold (Babylon). The bear is the chest and arms of silver (Medo-Persia). The leopard is the belly and thighs of bronze (Greece). And the fourth beast is the same as the legs of iron (Rome).

Finally last week as we finished the actual dream the last part of the dream or vision was of what I say is a fifth kingdom, a Messianic Kingdom given to  Jesus described in verse 13 as son of man whom was given authority and power by the Ancient of Day, the name of God in Aramaic.  

Today’s study


The Fifth Kingdom  (Messianic Kingdom)


Let’s first talk about what I define as that fifth kingdom, although it is not called a kingdom in the angel interpretation.

Daniel 7:13-14 (HCSB)13  I continued watching in the night visions, and I saw One like a son of man coming with the clouds of heaven. He approached the Ancient of Days and was escorted before Him.14  He was given authority to rule, and glory, and a kingdom; so that those of every people, nation, and language should serve Him. His dominion is an everlasting dominion that will not pass away, and His kingdom is one that will not be destroyed.

Daniel 7:17-18 (HCSB)17  ‘These huge beasts, four in number, are four kings who will rise from the earth.18  But the holy ones of the Most High will receive the kingdom and possess it forever, yes, forever and ever.’

After the four kingdom's rise, "the saints of the Most High will receive the kingdom". How is their conquest different from that of the four kingdoms?


Their  conquest is without human intervention read Chapter 2:34, 45.  It is total and that kingdom will endure forever.

Daniel 2:34-35 (HCSB)34  As you were watching, a stone broke off without a hand touching it, struck the statue on its feet of iron and fired clay, and crushed them.
35  Then the iron, the fired clay, the bronze, the silver, and the gold were shattered and became like chaff from the summer threshing floors. The wind carried them away, and not a trace of them could be found. But the stone that struck the statue became a great mountain and filled the whole earth.

That fifth kingdom the Messianic Kingdom is represented by that stone that breaks from the mountain without a hand touching it


Daniel 2:45 (HCSB)
45  You saw a stone break off from the mountain without a hand touching it, and it crushed the iron, bronze, fired clay, silver, and gold. The great God has told the king what will happen in the future. The dream is true, and its interpretation certain.”

Remember we said last week that Daniel’s dream pretty much corresponds with Nebchauderezars dream which Daniel interpreted.  That the four beasts corresponded to areas on the statue in the king’s dream.  

The lion is the same as the head of gold (Babylon). The bear is the chest and arms of silver (Medo-Persia). The leopard is the belly and thighs of bronze (Greece). And the fourth beast is the same as the legs of iron (Rome).

Go to Daniel 2:31-45.  

Daniel wanted to know what this all meant so today we are going to talk about the interpretation of the visions given to Daniel.


Daniel 7:15-18 (HCSB)15  “As for me, Daniel, my spirit was deeply distressed within me, and the visions in my mind terrified me.16  I approached one of those who were standing by and asked him the true meaning of all this. So he let me know the interpretation of these things:17  ‘These huge beasts, four in number, are four kings who will rise from the earth.18  But the holy ones of the Most High will receive the kingdom and possess it forever, yes, forever and ever.’

The interpretation was given to Daniel by whom he describes as somebody standing by during the time of the dream or vision.  We and most scholars say that it is the angel Gabriel who is identified later on the the book.  

We already talked about the angels interpretation of the four beasts representing kingdoms and the fact that they would eventually be conquered by a fifth kingdom the Messianic Kingdom.  

Daniel 7:17-18 (HCSB)17  ‘These huge beasts, four in number, are four kings who will rise from the earth.18  But the holy ones of the Most High will receive the kingdom and possess it forever, yes, forever and ever.’

The Fourth Beast


Daniel was particularly interested in the fourth beast because it was so unusual and violent and even more strange looking than the first three.  

Daniel 7:19-22 (HCSB)19  “Then I wanted to know the true meaning of the fourth beast, the one different from all the others, extremely terrifying, with iron teeth and bronze claws, devouring, crushing, and trampling with its feet whatever was left.20  ⌊I also wanted to know⌋ about the 10 horns on its head and about the other horn that came up, before which three fell—the horn that had eyes, and a mouth that spoke arrogantly, and that was more visible than the others.21  As I was watching, this horn waged war against the holy ones and was prevailing over them 22  until the Ancient of Days arrived and a judgment was given in favor of the holy ones of the Most High, for the time had come, and the holy ones took possession of the kingdom.

Here’s the Interpretation Given by the Angel
Image credit: Found on http://slaveofjesuschrist.me/2012/07/13/little-horn-pt-1/  No modifications made.


Daniel 7:23-27 (HCSB)23  “This is what he said: ‘The fourth beast will be a fourth kingdom on the earth, different from all the other kingdoms. It will devour the whole earth, trample it down, and crush it.24  The 10 horns are 10 kings who will rise from this kingdom. Another, different from the previous ones, will rise after them and subdue three kings.25  He will speak words against the Most High and oppress the holy ones of the Most High. He will intend to change religious festivals and laws, and the holy ones will be handed over to him for a time, times, and half a time.26  But the court will convene, and his dominion will be taken away, to be completely destroyed forever.
27  The kingdom, dominion, and greatness of the kingdoms under all of heaven will be given to the people, the holy ones of the Most High. His kingdom will be an everlasting kingdom, and all rulers will serve and obey Him.’

Let’s talk about the interpretation and what some scholars say about this fourth beasts and the 10 horns.  We have already said that the beast represents Rome or the Roman Empire.

But what about the 10 Horns?


The fourth beast has 10 horns which represent 10 kings that come from the Roman Empire or the geographic area covered by it.  These kings are not successive like the other four kingdoms one coming after the other.   These kings will rise and reign at the same or nearly the same time.  

Some have said that these 10 kings or kingdoms are the successors to Alexander the great but that doesn't really correspond to the origin being Rome.  All we know is that they represent 10 kingdoms that may or may not have happened yet.  I say that because the little horn that appears on the fourth beast has been identified by almost all theologians, Jewish and Christian as the Anti-Christ which we know has not yet appeared, at least where we would know him, so it may not be really logical to say that those horns represent any kingdoms that have existed previously.  Now maybe they exist today but there is no proof that is the case either.  The prophecies regarding the Gentiles which this prophecy clearly is  indicate that the Anti-Christ will come before the Ancient of Days holds court and gives the kingdom that is everlasting and under which all rulers will serve.

So perhaps God is telling us through this prophecy what will happen without identifying the players.  It tells us the characteristics of the players but not who they are and because much of the things that the prophecy says will happen hasn’t happened we really can’t identify those 10 horns.   Man has been trying to figure out from as far back as Daniel, and especially after the Revelation given to John exactly when all these things of the end time will happen.  If God had wanted us to know that don’t you think He would have been clear?  Even Jesus said He didn’t know when He would return and destroy Satan and His earthly rule would start.

However if that is true then the Anti-Christ would have to come from one of those kings and that hasn't happened yet.  If we agree that the fourth beast represents the Roman Empire then perhaps these  ten kings represent ten end-time rulers or nations that will in some way be related to the territory of the old Roman Empire.  How or who or what or when is not clearly revealed, making speculation useless.

Let’s get back to the “other horn” or “little horn”


Daniel 7:20-22 (HCSB)20  ⌊I also wanted to know⌋ about the 10 horns on its head and about the other horn that came up, before which three fell—the horn that had eyes, and a mouth that spoke arrogantly, and that was more visible than the others.21  As I was watching, this horn waged war against the holy ones and was prevailing over them22  until the Ancient of Days arrived and a judgment was given in favor of the holy ones of the Most High, for the time had come, and the holy ones took possession of the kingdom.

And the interpretation:


Daniel 7:24-26 (HCSB)24  The 10 horns are 10 kings who will rise from this kingdom. Another, different from the previous ones, will rise after them and subdue three kings.
25  He will speak words against the Most High and oppress the holy ones of the Most High. He will intend to change religious festivals and laws, and the holy ones will be handed over to him for a time, times, and half a time.26  But the court will convene, and his dominion will be taken away, to be completely destroyed forever.

Describe the political and military power of the "other horn" from the information found in this chapter


The little horn is not another kingdom but an individual that comes from one of the 10 who because he is intelligent and arrogant is able to subdue 3 of the existing kingdoms so he appears to be an astute politician who the uses great military might to become dominant in this group of kingdoms or nations which is now less than 10.    He also goes on a campaign to against people described as the holy ones.  I think here, since we have identified the “little horn” as the Anti-Christ,  the holy ones are those who are subjects of the Jesus when He is given authority by the Ancient of Days (God).  That would mean the believers both living and dead.

Here’s more about Anti-Christ from the Wycliffe Bible Commentary:

Note herein twelve facts about Antichrist: (1) He will not create a tenfold confederacy; he will absorb one (v. 24). (2) He will be just another king—"another... horn" (v. 8), and he will be mortal (Rev 13:2; 2 Thess 2:9). It will be the Satanic power behind him that will make him significant. (3) He will be obscure at first—"little" (Dan 7:8). (4) His march to power will begin with his conquest of three kingdoms (v. 8; cf. v. 24). (5) Yet something about him will be special (diverse from the first [ten], v. 24). See Rev 13:15; 2 Thess 2:4. Many extraordinary events will be connected with him (Rev 13:16, 17; 2 Thess 2:9, 10). (6) He will be very intelligent—"eyes of a man" (Dan 7:8). (7) He will be an orator of ability (v. 8). (8) His appearance will be striking (v. 20; cf. Isa 53:2, 3). (9) He will be a blasphemer (Dan 7:25; cf. Rev 13:5, 6). (10) He will seek to make his accession a new epoch (Dan 7:25, change times). (11) He will seek to destroy Israel (v. 25 a; cf. 9:26, 27). (12) His time will be short (v. 25), a time, [two] times, and the dividing [half] of time (cf. Rev 11:2; 13:5; Dan 9:25; 12:7-12).

What is the moral and spiritual character of the "other horn"?


  • Arrogant - Daniel 7:20 (HCSB)20  ⌊I also wanted to know⌋ about the 10 horns on its head and about the other horn that came up, before which three fell—the horn that had eyes, and a mouth that spoke arrogantly, and that was more visible than the others.
  • Blasphemer - Daniel 7:25 (HCSB)25  He will speak words against the Most High and oppress the holy ones of the Most High. He will intend to change religious festivals and laws, and the holy ones will be handed over to him for a time, times, and half a time.

Twice the heavenly interpreter emphasizes that the last king will be tried and condemned by God (Daniel 7:22, 26). In your opinion why does God go to the effort of setting up court to judge someone so blatantly sinful?  

To make a spectacle of them in a public trial just as Jesus made a spectacle of spiritual principalities and powers. 

Colossians 2:15 (NKJV)15  Having disarmed principalities and powers, He made a public spectacle of them, triumphing over them in it.

Daniel is told that the saints of the Most High will share in the kingdom with the Son of man. What do you find most appealing about Daniel's description of God's kingdom , and why?


It is complete everlasting and it’s led by Jesus to whom God gave it and everybody will serve him.  All other nations and rulers,  those Gentile nations,  all of them,  will be judged and destroyed.
Daniel 7:13-14 (HCSB)
13  I continued watching in the night visions, and I saw One like a son of man coming with the clouds of heaven. He approached the Ancient of Days and was escorted before Him.14  He was given authority to rule, and glory, and a kingdom; so that those of every people, nation, and language should serve Him. His dominion is an everlasting dominion that will not pass away, and His kingdom is one that will not be destroyed.

Daniel 7:27 (HCSB)27  The kingdom, dominion, and greatness of the kingdoms under all of heaven will be given to the people, the holy ones of the Most High. His kingdom will be an everlasting kingdom, and all rulers will serve and obey Him.’

How was Daniel affected by all that was revealed to him?


Daniel 7:28 (HCSB)28  “This is the end of the interpretation. As for me, Daniel, my thoughts terrified me greatly, and my face turned pale, but I kept the matter to myself.”

Things to think about this week


  1. God revealed Himself to Daniel through dreams and visions. How does God usually speak to us today?
  2. What are some of the negative, ungodly forces in our society today?
  3. How are some troubled nations dishonoring God?
  4. How does Daniel’s vision portray God’s control in the affairs of the world?
  5. To whom does God hand over the dominion of the world?
  6. In what ways are some Christians persecuted in our country?
  7. When have you felt defeated as a Christian?
  8. What does it mean to you to be part of the kingdom of God?
  9. How does the Lord come to your rescue when you are down?
  10. How can the nations of the world become a part of your daily prayer life?
  11. What steps can you take to hand over your fears to the Lord?

Next week we will start in chapter 8.  This begins the prophecies that are specific, for the most part to the Hebrews or nation of Israel.  Most of the things in these prophecies have already happened or been fulfilled and we will talk about them.

For more study resources on the book of Daniel click these links:






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